Communications on Advanced Computational Science with Applications

Volume 2016, No. 1 (2016), Pages 1-15

Article ID cacsa-00050, 15 Pages

doi: 10.5899/2016/cacsa-00050

Research Article

Application of Numerical Methods in Design of Hydraulic Structures

Iman Naderi Rad *

Department of Civil Engineering, Malayer Branch, Islamic Azad University, Malayer, Iran

* Corresponding author. Email address: Tel: +98 9183136435

Received: 28 September 2015; Accepted: 06 October 2015

Copyright © 2016 Iman Naderi Rad. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


  1. M. Ajdary Moghadam, Gh. Akbari, M. Alavi moghadam, M. Arami Fadafan, Investigating Cavitation of Spillway Shoots Using Flow-3d Software and Necessity of Using Aerators, 10th conference of hydraulic, Iran, Gilan University, (2011).

  2. A. Dastgheib, M. H. Niksokhan, A. R. Nowroozpour, Comparing of Flow Pattern and Energy Dissipation over different forms of Stepped Spillway, World Environmental and Water Resources Congress, New Mexico, USA, (2012) 1246-1259.

  3. A. Bahrami, Investigating Effective Factors in Aeration and the Role of Aerators in Preventing Cavitation in Spillway of Dams, 3rd conference of water resource management, Iran, Tabriz University, (2008).

  4. S. Benmamar, A. Kettab, C. Thirriot, Numerical Simulation of Turbulent Flow Upstream of the Inception Point in a Stepped Channel, Proceedings of the 30th IAHR congress, Thessaloniki, Greece, 24-19 August, (2003).

  5. R. M. Boes, W. H. Hager, Two-phase Flow Characteristics of Stepped Spillways, Journal of Hydraulic Engineering, 129 (9) (2003b) 661-670.

  6. F. A. Bombardelli, I. Meireles, J. Matos, Laboratory measurements and multi-block numerical simulations of the mean flow and turbulence in the non-aerated skimming flow region of steep stepped spillways, Environ. Fluid Mech, 11 (3) (2011) 263-288.

  7. Rita Fernandes de Carvalho, António Táboas Amador, Physical and Numerical Investigation of the Skimming Flow over a Stepped Spillway, Proceedings of the 16th IAHR-APD Congress and the 3rd Symposium of IAHR-ISHS, 20-23 October, Nanjing, China, (2009) 1767-1772.

  8. H. Chanson, The hydraulics of stepped chutes and spillways, Balkema Publisher, Tokyo, (1994).

  9. H. Chanson, L. Toombes, Air-water Flows down Stepped Chutes: Turbulence and Flow Structure Observations, International Journal of Multiphase Flow, 28 (11) (2002) 1737-1761.

  10. P. G. Chanel, An Evaluation of Computational Fluid Dynamics for Spillway Modeling, Master of Science Thesis, Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Manitoba, Canada, (2008).

  11. Q. Chen, G. Dai, H. Liu, Volume of Fluid model for turbulence numerical simulation of stepped spillway overflow, J. Hydr Eng. ASCE, 128 (7) (2002) 683-688.

  12. H. Chanson, L. Toombes, Experimental investigations of air entrainment in transition and skimming flows down a stepped chute, Can. J. of Civ. Eng, 29 (2002) 145-156.

  13. X. Cheng, L. Luo, W. Zhao, Study of aeration in the water flow over stepped spillway, In: Proceedings of the world water congress, ASCE, Salt Lake City, UT: USA; (2004a).

  14. X. Cheng, L. Luo, W. Zhao, R. Li, Two-phase flow simulation of aeration on stepped spillway, Prog. Nat. Sci, 14 (7) (2004b) 626-630.

  15. X. Cheng, Y. Chen, L. Luo, Numerical simulation of air-water two-phase flow over stepped spillway, Sci. in China Series E: Tech. Sci, 49 (6) (2006) 674-684.

  16. T. J. Craft, B. E. Launder, K. Suga, Development and Application of a Cubic Eddy-viscosity Model of Turbulence, International Journal of Heat and Fluid Flow, 17 (2) (1996) 108-115.

  17. B. Crookston, Labyrinth weirs, Ph.D. Dissertation. Utah State University, Logan, Utah, (2010).

  18. Z. Y. Dong, J. H. Lee, Numerical Simulation of Skimming Flow over Mild Stepped Channel, Journal of Hydrodynamics, Serie B, 18 (3) (2006) 367-371.

  19. J. R. Dubler, N. S. Grigg, Dam Safety Policy for Spillway Design Floods, Journal of Professional Issues in Engineering Education and Practice, 122 (4) (1996) 163-169.

  20. Dehdar, S. Behbahani, Investigating Cavitation during Cup-shaped Projectile of Upstream Dam Spillway Using Flow-3d Model, 10th conference of hydraulic, Iran, Gilan university, (2011).

  21. K. Esmaeily, Laboratory and Numerical Modeling of Flow in Cylindrical Spillways, Soil and Hydraulic Journal- agriculture science and industry, Ferdousi University, Mashad, (2010).

  22. D. D. Franz, C. S. Melching, Full Equations (FEQ) Model for the Solution of the Full, Dynamic Equations of Motion for One-Dimensional Unsteady Flow in Open Channels and through Control Structures, U.S. Geological survey, Water Resources Investigations Report, Series number: 96-4240 (1997).

  23. D. D. Franz, C. S. Melching, Full Equations (FEQ) Model for the Solution of the Full, Dynamic Equations of Motion for One-Dimensional Unsteady Flow in Open Channels and through Control Structures, U.S. Geological survey, Water Resources Investigations Report, Series number: 96-4240 (1997).

  24. C. W. Hirt, B. D. Nichols, Volume of Fluid (VOF) Method for the Dynamics of Free Boundaries, Journal of Computational Physics, 39 (1) (1981) 201-225.

  25. S. T. Johansen, N. M. Anderson, S. R. De Silva, A Two-phase Model for Particle Local Equilibrium Applied to Air Classification of Powers, Power Technology, 63 (1990) 121-132.

  26. R. M. Khatsuria, Hydraulics of Spillways and Energy Dissipators, MarcelDekker, New York, USA, (2005).

  27. S. D. Kim, H. J. Lee, S. D. An, Improvement of Hydraulic Stability for Spillway using CFD Model, International Journal of Physical Sciences, 5 (6) (2010) 774-780.

  28. S. Li, S. Cain, M. Wosnik, H. Kocahan, R. Wyckoff, Numerical Modeling of Probable Maximum Flood Flowing through a System of Spillways, Journal of Hydraulic Engineering, 137 (1) (2011) 66-74.

  29. I. Naderi Rad, Comparing Energy Dissipation of Stepped Spillways and Ogee Spillway Using Volume of Fluid Method, 3rd national congress of civil engineering, Tabriz industrial university, (2007).

  30. I. Naderi Rad, An Estimation of Energy Dissipation in Varius Type of Stepped Spillways Horizontal Steps, Inclined Steps, and Steps with End Sills by Numerical Model Using Fluent Software, M S.c. Thesis, Civil and Environmental Engineering Department, Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran,(2006).

  31. I. Naderi Rad, M. Teimouri, An Investigation of Flow Energy Dissipation in Simple Stepped Spillways by Numerical Model, European Journal of Scientific Research, 47 (4) (2010) 544-553.

  32. I. Naderi Rad, An Investigation of Energy Dissipation in Various Types of Stepped Spillways including Inclined Steps and Steps with End Sills by Numerical Model, Journal of Communications on Advanced Computational Science with Applications, 2014 (2014) 12 pages.

  33. I. Naderi Rad, Numerical Study of Flow over New Generation of Stepped Spillways, Journal of Communications on Advanced Computational Science with Applications, 2014 (2014) 12 pages.

  34. A. H. Nikseresht, M. M. Alishahi, A. Emdad, Complete Flow Field Computation around an ACV (Air Cushion Vehicle) using 3-D VOF with Lagrangian Propagation in Computational Domain, Computers and Structures, 86 (7-8) (2008) 627-641.

  35. A. H. Nikseresht, N. Talebbeydokhti, M. J. Rezaei, Numerical simulation of two-phase flow on step-pool spillways, Scientia Iranica, 20 (2012) 222-230.

  36. G. Paxson, B. Savage, Labyrinth Spillways: Comparison of Two Popular U.S.A Design Methods and Consideration of Non-standard Approach Conditions and Geometries, International Junior Researcher and Engineer Workshop on Hydraulic Structures, J. Matos and H. Chanson (Eds), Report CH61/06, Div. of Civil Eng., The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia. (2006).

  37. Z. Qian, X. Hu, W. Huai, A. Amador, Numerical Simulation and Analysis of Water Flow over Stepped Spillways, Science in China Series E: Technological Sciences, 52 (7) (2009) 1958-1965.

  38. M. Tabbara, J. Chatila, R. Awwad, Computational simulation of flow over stepped spillways, J. of Comput. and Struc, 83 (27) (2005) 2215-2224.

  39. S. Takasu, J. Yamaguchi, Principle for Selecting Type of Spillway for Flood Control Dams in Japan, Proceedings of 16th Congress of the International Commission on Large Dams, 13-16 June, San Francisco, USA, (1988).

  40. R. Tadayon, A. S. Ramamurthy, Turbulence Modeling of Flow over Circular Spillways, Journal of Irrigation and Drainage Engineering, 135 (4) (2009) 493-498.